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Full text of "Elisha Bartlett, a Rhode Island philosopher [microform] : an address delivered before the Rhode Island Medical Society, Dec. 7th, 1899"

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tj«»?rt«\t t^-vi 






Oil*? V UJtt\f4W. 




William Osler, M. D., 


WHIi an Appendix containing Dr. Bartlbtt's 
sketcli of Hippocrates. 


* -J^ 


A Rhode Island Philosopher, 



William Osler, M. D., 


With an Appendix containing Dr. Bartlett's 
sketch of Hippocrates. 



Snow & Far.nham, rRi\TEKs, 


[ Reprinted from the Transactions of the Rhode Island Medical 
Society, for 1899. ] -aieuicai 



Rhode Island can boast of but one great philosopher, — one 
to whose flights in the empyrean neither Roger Williams nor 
any of her sons could soar, — tlie immortal Berkeley, who 
was a trmisient guest in this State, waiting quietly and hap- 
pily for the realization of his Eutopimi schemes. Still he 
lived long enough in Rhode Island to make his name part of 
her history ; long enougli in America to make her the in- 
spiration of his celebrated lines on the course of empire. 
Elisha Bartlett, teacher, philosopher, author, of whom I am 
about to speak, whom you may claim as the most distin- 
guished physician of this State, lias left no deep impression on 
your local history or institutions. Here he was born and ed- 
ucated, and to this, his home, he returned to die ; but his 
busy life Avas spent in other fields, where to-day his memory 
is cherished more warmly than in the land of his birth. 


Born at Smithfield in 1804, Bartlett was singularly for- birth akd 
tunate in his parents, who were members of the Society of ''ovhood. 
Friends, strong, earnest souls, well endowed with graces of 
the head and of the heart. Tlie gentle hfe, the zeal for 
practical righteousness and the simplicity of the faith of the 
followers of Fox, put a hall-mark on the sensitive youth 
which the rough usage of the world never obHterated. No 
account of Bartlett's early life and school-days exists — an 
index that they were happy and peaceful. We may read in 
his poem called "An Allegory," certain autobiographical de- 
tails, transferring the 

" 3Iead(>w and field, and forest, dale and hill ; 
Orchards, green hedgerows, gardens, stately trees," 

from the old England which he describes to the banks of 
Narragansett Bay. Paraphrasing other parts of tlie poem, we 
may say that auspicious stars slione over his cradle with the 


kinclliost liglit nnd promise, and amid the j,'enial nirof a New 
England home, gooihiess, trnth and ht-antv were his portion. 
He tells of the wonder and delight stirred in his young soul 
by the thousand tales of » fairies and genii, giants, dwarfs 
and that redoubtable and valiant Jaek who slew the giants." 
Then, as the days lengthened, he came under the si)ell of 
" The Arabian Nights " and of " Hobinson Crusoe." Looking 
back in after years, he compared this hearty, wholesome life 
to some Ixmnteous spring that wells wp irum the deep heart 
()f the earth. Addison, Goldsmith and Washington Irvhig 
filled his soul with freshness like the dawn, 

and gradu. 

Life in 

"And led by love and kindness, ran tlie liours 
Their merry round till boylnx.d ])assed away." 

In the ruder 'discipline and strife of school and college he 
grew to manhood with (as he expressed it) "a fine free 
healthfuhiess," imd with faculties self-])oised and balanced. 

At Sniithfield, at Uxbridge, and at a well-known Friends' 
institution in New York, IJartlett obtained a very thorough 
preliminary education. Details of his medical course are m^t 
• at hand, but after studying with Dr. Willard, of Uxbridge, 
Drs. Greene and Heywood, of Worcester, and Dr. Levi 
Wheaton, of Providence, and attending medical lectures at 
Boston and at Providence, he took his doctor's degree at 
Brown rniversity in 1820, a year before the untimely end of 
the medical department, i 

In June, 182t5, Bartlett sailed f..r Euroi)e, and the letters 
to his sisters, which, with other P.artlett papers, have been 
kindly sent me by his nephew, the Hon. Willard liartlett, of the 
New \ ork Court of Appeals, give a delightful account of his 
year as a student aljroad. Ihi remained in Paris until De- 
cember ; then,jn company with his fellow-student. Dr. South- 

> Parsons closi-s his y/,Von',v(/ Tract n„ the Brown nuvprsitv ^f('diral School ^vith 
tlie sentence. " W Ijotlier city, tlie second in New Knglaml simll I .T, „e n^ " 
of such a school (that is, a revive.l department of in(.(li,Tne must il m mV(1 vU v n,T 
on the zea , persistence and aliility of'its physicians.- May e pern t e dV.) i^e. k 
3Ir. Presuleut that the existing conditions are singularly •f:iv,)rale for i si lUt^'rst' 
ela.-s school Uere are college laboratories of physics, cheniistrv !'i hf. ')iry TnH 
vehwr ,"■'■' •••"".'T'-'l I'"^l'itals, with some thVee hmwlred" Ms^ WI a is fi^kii? •' 
Neither zeal, )er.sistence nor ahility on the part of th.. physicians t t .neimw 

iK^come forsmall medical schools in uni>'^rstky"towi:r wUh ^^^od cUnical nicilf^ 


wick, he visited the chief cities of Italy, roturning to Paris 
early in March. The month of May, 1827, was spent in 
London, and he sailed t'nun Liverpool Jiuie Hth. Unfortu- 
nately the letters to his sisters contain very few references to 
his medical studies, hut I have extracted a few memoranda 
from them. 

Writing Aug. 24, 182»), he says: " The celehrated Laennec 
died at his country residence on the 13th of the present 
month. The puhlieation in 1810 of a new method of ascer- 
taining diseases of the cliest forms an era in the history of 
medicine. M. Laennec fell a victim to one of those diseases 
the investigation of whicii hy himself has enriched the lield 
of science, contrihuted to the alleviation of human suffering, 
and giving his own name a high rank among the great and 
the good men of his age." He asked that this memorandum 
should appear in the Providence pai)ers. 

Writing Septemher 4th, he speaks of attending ever}' day 
at the Jardin des Plantes to hear the lectures of Cloquet and 

(^ne of the professors at the medical school, he says, looked 
more like a jolly stage driver or a good-natured, Iilustering 
hutcher than anything else. " He lectures sometimes stand- 
ing, and sometimes leaning against a post, or straddling over 
a high stool, flourishing a lancet in one hand and a snuif-hox 
in the other, on the contents of whicii he is continually laying 
the most inordinate contrilmtions. He wears during the time 
an old rnsty looking hlack cap. The familiarity of the dis- 
tinguished surgeons and physicians with their students struck 
me at first sight very forcihly, heing in such perfect contrast 
to the proud port and haughty carriage of some of our Xew 
England professors. I wish they might step into the Hotel 
Dieu and Ija Charity and take a lesson or two of lioj-er and 
Dupuytren, harons of the Empire, and t\vo of the most distin- 
guished surgeons in the world." 

In the letter of Octoi)er 10th, he says : "The pu!)lic lec- 
tures opened this week, and we are continually engaged from 
half past six in the moi'uing till bed time. Msits are made 
at all the hospitals hy candle liglit. and a lecture delivered at 
most of them inanediately after the visit." 

He speaks of attending the lectures of Geoft'rov St. Ilil- 
laire, wlio, he says, "lectures very liadly: his gestures, though 
he is a Frenchnuui, are exccedinglv awkwai'd, and he has a 


8in^'-song tone like tlmt which one often liears in aMetliodist 
or l^uakcr itiviii her." 

J. ike Oliver Weiitlell Holmes, Hurtlett pvohahly iicqiiired 
in i'aris three i)rinciple8: " Not to take authority when I ean 
have facta ; not to guess when I can know ; not to think a 
man must take jHiysic herause he is sick." '^ 

Strangely enough I find no reference in these Paris letters 
to the man of all others who intivienced Hartlett most deeply. 
In Louis, even more than in Laennec, the young American 
students of that day found light and leading. The numeri- 
cal method, based on a painstaking study of all the phenomena 
of disease in the wards and in the dead-house, appealed with 
l)eculiar force to their practical minds, and Louis's hrilliant 
ohservations on phthisis and on fevers constituted, as IJart- 
lett remarked, a new and great era in the history of medical 
science. I cannot find any definite statement of Bartlett's 
rehitii»ns with Louis in 1820-27, at which period the latter 
was still working quietly at La Charity. His monograpii on 
phthisis had been published in 1825, and had at once given 
him a reputation as one of the great lights of the French 
school. He was at this time very busy collecting material 
for his still more important work on ty[)hoid fever, and it is 
scarcely possible that Bartlett could have frequented La 
Charity without meeting the grave, unobtrusive student, who, 
with note book in hand, literally lived in the wards and in 
the dead-house. Secluded from the world, living as a volun- 
tary assistant to Chomel in this quiet haven of observation, 
apart from the turbid seas of speculation which surged outr 
side, Louis for seven years pursued his remarkable career. 
Whether or not Bartlett came into personal contact with iiim 
at this time I do not know, but, however, this may be, sub- 
seciuently the great French clinician became his model and 
his master, and to him he dedicated his first edition of the 
"Fevers," and his "Essay on the Philosophy of Medical 

For a young man of twenty-two, these letters — written off- 
liand — show an unusually good literary style, and many in- 
cidental references indicate that lie had received a general 
education much above the average. The strong Christian 
spirit which he felt all through life is already manifest, as 
may l»e gleaned from one or two expressions in the letters. 

- Morse's Life of Holmes, vol. i., p. 109. 

Writing' Sept. 4, 182(5, to liis sisters, he refers to the death of 
n (leiir tVieiid and her little sister: " There is a cheering eon- 
sohitioii in the rellectiim that » of such is the kingdom of 
heaven,' and that their si)irits Imve gone in ])erfeet and sin- 
less purity to their home of bliss, and we may believe that 
they in their turn have become guardian angels to those who 
cherished and protected them here : 

' Tliey were their Ruanlian angels here, 
Tliey guardian angels now to them.' " 

In 1827, shortly after completing his twenty-third year, injn 
liartlett settled at Lowell, then a town of only 3,500 inhabi- 
tants, but growing rapidly, owing to the establisiiment of 
numerous mills. This was his home for nearly twenty years, 
and to it, and later to Woonsocket, lie returned in the inter- 
vals between his college work in different sections of the 
country. As Dr. I). C. Pattersim remarks, "He became at 
once the universal favorite, and began to take a deep interest 
in the physical welfare of the townsmen." In 1828 he de- 
livered lectures before the Lowell Lyceum on contagious 
diseases, and he gave frequent popular lectures on sanitation 
and hygiene. In 1828 he was the orator on the Fourth of 
July. In 1836 he delivered a course of popular lectures on 

Evidently Bartlett had the " grace of favor " in a remark- 
able degree. Bishop Clark pictures him in those days in the 
following words : " Some twenty-five years ago, I used to 
meet a young man in the town of Lowell, whose presence 
carried sunshine wherever he went ; whose tenderness and 
skill relieved the darkness of many a chamber of sickness, 
and whom all the conununity were fast learning to love and 
honor. Life lay before liim, full of promise ; the delicate 
temper of his soul fitting him to the most exquisite enjoy- 
ment of all the pure delights of nature, and his cheerful tem- 
perament giving a genial and geiu'rous glow to the refined 
circles of which he was one of the ehiefest ornaments." 

When only thirty-two, before he had been in Lowell ten 
years, he was elected by a respectable majority as the first 
mayor of the city, and he was re-elected the following year. 
A letter frt)m the Hon. Caleb Cushing, dated April 20, 1841, 
gives us an idea of the estimate which a clear headed layman 



of the 
" mill- 

Visit of 

placed upou him. " Dr. Bartlett enjoys in the city of Lowell 
the unqualified respect oi" that community, and its affection- 
ate esteem, — respect and esteem due alike to his public re- 
lations to that city, as formerly its popular and useful chief 
magistrate, and at all times one of its most patriotic and 
valued citizens ; to his unblemished integrity of character 
and amenity of deportment ; to his eminence in his profes- 
sion ; to the endearments of private friendship ; and in gen- 
eral to his talents, accomplishments, manners and princi- 

To two interesting episodes in his life at Lowell I may re- 
fer at greater length. The rapid growth of the industries in 
Lowell had brought in from the surrounding country a very 
large number of young girls as operatives in the mills, and 
their physical and moral condition had been seriously im- 
pugned by writers in certain leading Boston papers. These 
charges were investigated in a most thorough way by Bart- 
lett, who published in the Lowell Courier in 18B9, and re- 
published in pamphlet form (1841) his well-known "Vindi- 
cation of the Character and Condition of the Females Em- 
ployed in the Lowell Mills." This veiy strong paper, 
based on careful personal investigations, really proved to 
be what the title indicated. It did not, however, escape 
adverse criticism, and among the Bartlett papers there 
is a review cf the "Vindication" by a citizen of Lowell 
in 1842, which presents the other side of a picture, by no 
means a pleasant one, of the prolonged iiours of the opera- 
tives and their wretched life hi boarding-houses. 

One of the most interesting incidents of his life at this pe- 
riod was tlie reception to Dickens, whose visit to Lowell oc- 
curred during Dr. Bartlett*s mayoralty. In the "American 
Notes " Dickens speaks of tlie girls^is " healthy in appear- 
ance, many of tliem remarkably so, and had the manners and 
deportment of 3-oung women, not of degraded brutes of bur- 
den." Oliver Wendell Holmes says, referring to tliis occa- 
sion: "I liave been told a distinguished foreign visitor 
(Cliaj-les Dickens), wlio went through the wliole length and 
breadth of the land, said tliat of all the many welcomes he 
received from statesmen renowned as orators, from men 
whose profession is eloquence, not one was so impressive and 
felicitous as tliat which was spoken by Dr. Bartleti, then 
mayor of Lowell, our brotlier in tlie silent profession, which 
he graced \\ iih lliest unwonted accomplishments." 





In 1840 he was elected to the Legislature of the State of 
INIassachiisetts and served two terms. In 1845 he was nomi- 
nated by the Governor a member of the Board of Education 
of the State in the place of Jared Sparks. Holmes, who was 
familiar with Bartlett in this period of his career, has left on 
record the following charming description : " It is easy to re- 
call his ever-welcome and gracious presence. On his ex- jj^g^,., 
panded forehead no one could fail to trace the impress of a t^n of 
large and calm intelligence. In liis most open aud beaming 
smile none could help feeling the warmth of a heart which 
was the seat of all generous and kindly affections. When he 
spoke his tones were of singular softness, his thoughts came 
in chosen Avords, scholarlike, 5'et unpretending, often playful, 
always full of lively expressions, giving the idea of one that 
could be dangerously keen in nis judgments, had he not kept 
his fastidiousness to himself, and his charity to sheathe the 
weakness of others. In familiar intercourse — and the wTiter 
of these paragraphs was once under the same roof with him 
for some months — no one could lie more companionable and 
winning in all his ways. The little trials of life he took 
kindly and cheerily, turning into pleasantly the petty incon- 
veniences which a less thoroughly good-natuied man would 
have fretted over." 


For many years there was in this country a poup of peri- teacher. 
patetic teachers who like the So})liists of Greece, went from 
town to town, staying a year or two in each, or they divided 
their time between a winter session in a lavnt' citv school and 
a summer term in a small country one. Among them Daniel 
Drake takes the precedence, as he made eleven moves in the 
course of his stirring and eventful life. Bartlett comes an 
easy second, having taught in nine schools. Dunglison, T. 
K. Beck, AV ard Parker. Alonzo Clark, the elder (xross, 
Austin Flint, Frank IT. Hamilton, and many others wliom 
I could name, belonged to this group of wandering pro- 
fessors. The medical education of the day was almost ex- 
olusivel}- theoretical ; the tenchers lectured for a sliort four 
months" session, there was a litile dissection, a few major 
operations were witnessed, the fees were paid, examinations 
were iield — and all was over. No wonder, under such eon- 




clitions, that many of the most flourishing schools were found 
amid sylvan groves in small country towns. In New Eng- 
land there were five such schools, and in the State of 
New York the well-known schools at Fairfield and at 
Geneva. As there was not enougli practice in the small 
places to go round, the teachers for the most part stayed 
only for the session, at the end of which it was not 
unusual for the major part of the faculty, with the students 
to migrate to another institution, where the lectures were re- 
peated and the class graduated. T. II. Beck's hitroductory 
lecture, in 1824, at Fairfield, "On the Utility of Country 
Medical Institutions," pictures in glowing terms tlieir advan- 
tages. One sentence brought to my mind the picture of a 
fine old doctor, on the Niagara peninsula, a graduate of Fair- 
field, who possibly may have listened to this very address. 
Dr. Beck asks: "What is the clhiical instruction of the 
country student ? It is this — after attenfling a course of 
lectures on the several branches of medicine and becoming 
acquainted with their general bearing, he during the summer 
repairs to the office of a practitioner ; attends him in his visits 
to his patients ; views the diseases peculiar to the different 
districts ; observes the treatment that situation or habits of 
life indicate and from day to day verifies the lessons he has 
received. Here, then, is a direct preparation for tlie life he 
intends to pursue." And I may say that it was just this 
training that made of my old friend one of the best general 
practitioners it has ever been my pleasure to know. 

In the letters we can follow Bartlett's wanderings during 
the next twenty years, from the time of his appointment to 
one of the smallest of the schools to his final position as one 
of the chief ornaments of the leading school of New York. 
In 1832 he held his first teaching position, that of professor 
of pathological anatomy and of materia medica in the Berk- 
shire Medical Institute, at Pittsfield. The following is an 
extract from a letter to Dr. John Orne Green, dated Pitts- 
field, J^ovember 25, 1833: "The character of the class is 
said to be superior even to that of last year. We have a 
large numljer of excellent students. Parker is as i)opulav as 
ever, nnd Professor Childs has the credit of liaving improved 
very much in liis manner of teaching. Tlie members of the 
class are attentive to their studies, eager for knowledge, and 
regular in their attendance on the lectures. I have lectures, 



^ere found 
New Eng- 
State of 
[ aiid at 
the small 
art stayed 
was not 
3 students 
s were I'e- 
f Country 
eir advan- 
ture of a 
;e of Fair- 
Y address. 
)n of the 
course of 
3 summer 
his visits 
habits of 
IS he has 
le life he 
just this 
t general 

;s during 
tnient to 
11 as one 
nv York, 
the Berk- 
ng is an 
ed Pitts- 
3 chiss is 
3 have a 
3pular as 
rs of the 
idge, and 


most of the time, twice a day, at 10 A. m. and at 2 p. M. I 
shall finish my course on materia medica by the middle of 
this week, and the remainder of my time will be occupied 
with lectures of medical jurisprudence and pathological an- 
atomy. The commencement will be on Wednesday of week 
after next." 

He held the chair at Pittsfield for eight sessions. Among 
his colleagues were Childs, Dewey and Willard Parker, who 
was a very special friend. In a letter of October 2, 1836, he 
says : " Parker, with his sunny face and his hearty welcome, 
was in a few minutes after my arrival. It does one good to 
meet such men." 

In 1839 he was appointed to the chair of practice in Dart- 
mouth College, Hanover, N. H., the school founded by 
Nathan Smith in 1798. In a letter to his friend, Green, 
dated September 8th, he gives brief sketches of some of his 
colleagues, among them a delightful account of Oliver Wen- 
dell llolmes, then a young mun of thirty. " Dr. Holmes you 
know sometliing of. As a teacher there is no doubt of his 
success, although lie will not sliow himself during tliis his 
first course. He has his anatomy — some of it at le<ist — to 
study as he goes on, and he has not yet got the whole hang 
of the lecture-room — he does not give himself his whole 
swing. His attainments in medical science are extensive and 
accurate, and his intellectual endowments are extraordinary. 
His mind is quick as lightning and sharp as a razor. His 
conversational powers are absolutely wonderful. His most 
striking mental peculiarities consist in a power of compre- 
hensive and philosopliical generalization on all subjects, and 
in a fecundity of illustration that is inexhaustible. His talk 
at table is all spontaneous, unpremeditated, and he pours him- 
self forth — ^\■ords and thoughts — in a perfect torrent. His 
wit and humor are quite lost in the prodigal exuberance of 
his thoughts and language." In this same letter is the fol- 
lowing characteristic memorandum, illustrating his desire to 
see the school-houses beautilied and adorned. "One word 
about the High School House. Pray, don't forget in the 
phuniing of the rooms my plan for some embellishments. 
Even if we should get some busts I do not know that niches 
would be any better than suitable stands or shelves. I hope 
we shall vaist', by a fair, from live hundred to one thousand 
dollars for pictures, etc., for ornaments to the two principal 


Bartlett on 



rooms." It is is quite possible tliat Bartlett lectured botli at 
Woodstock and at Pittsfield, as the terms were purpose^ ar- 
ranged so as not to clash, and in tlie catalogue of the Ver- 
mont Medical College, 1844, there is an advertisement of 
the Berkshire school. The names of Bartlett and Holmes 
occur only in the 1839-40 and 1840-41 announcements. 

In 1841 he accepted the chair of the theory and practice of 
medicine in the Transylvania University, Lexington, at that 
time the strongest and best equipped school in the West. 3 
On his way to Lexington he visited New York, Philadelphia, 
Washmgton and Baltimore, and in a letter to Green, of Sep- 
tember 7, 1841, he gives an interesting account of the men 
he met in these cities. One item is of interest to Balti- 
moresms : " Day before yesterday I spent with Dr. Nathan R. 
Smith, at Baltimore on my return from Washington, f 
found him very attentive and hospitable. He took me into 
his gig and went to see some of his patients. He has a 
pretty large surgical practice, and is, I should think, a man 
of excehent sound sense, industrious and devoted to his pro- 
fession — not so great a man as his father, but a very capital 
good fellow. He speaks well of Lexington and the school 
— says it is the best appointed school in the country." 

In his letters there are interesting descriptions "^of his life 
in Lexington, some of which are worth quoting : " In the 
school we are getting on very weU. The class is of a good 
size, rather larger tlian last year, worth a little over ¥2,000 
intelligent, attentive, well behaved. I have given fifty-eight 
lectures, and we have just six weeks more. My own success 
has been good enough, I tliink. So far as I have means of 
judging, my instruction is entirely satisfactory, to say the 
least. My colleagues — Dudley, you know, is the great^ man 
here. He has many peculiarities. He is very much pleased 
with me. He teaches singular doctrines, and follows, in 
many things, a practice veiy peculiar to liimself. The other 
day he tied the common carotid before the class in an anas- 
tomosing aneurism in the orbit ; i)atient from St. Louis. Dav 
before yesterday he cut for the stone : patient a lad froin 
^Mississippi. He lias two more cases of stone iiere for opera- 
tion. He is exceedingly cautious ; sends many patients, of 
all sorts, away without operation. Uses the "ijandage for 

i,viV,?\v'!?;"'- fj";.^f ''''''•■'' I»<i«:ntnit'nt of Tiansvlvaiiia rniversitv ami its Fainiltv 
l.> 1). . M lUiam .1. ( alv.Tt, John. Uoi-kins Jlo.i.ital ItuUoti.., Aufi„st, s'n.t'mluT/i,s[)l^^ 



I red botli at 
-irposely ar- 
of the Ver- 
:isement of 
ncl Holmes 

practice of 
ton, at that 
:he West. 3 
en, of Sep- 
of the men 
b to Balti- 

Nathan R. 
ihigton. I 
k me into 

He has a 
ink, a man 
to liis pro- 
eiy capital 
the school 

of his life 
;•: "In the 

of a good 
er ¥2,000, 

vn success 

means of 
to say the 
great man 
L^h pleased 
ollo^vs, in 
rhe other 
n an anas- 
ouis. Day 

hid from 
for opera- 
atients, of 
lulage for 

il its Kaoiiltv, 
itciubi'r, IS'M. 


everything almost in surgery — tart. ant. and starvation, or 
low diet, in most diseases. He had a pretty large property, 
' a garden ' as he calls it, of 150 acres or so, a mile from the 
city. Richardson, in obstetrics, boards with me, a plain com- 
mon-sense man, wlio fought a duel in early life with 
Dudley; has made a pretty large fortune here m practice, 
and now lives in the country eight miles or so from here, on 
a farm of 500 acres. The style of lecturing here is quite 
different from what it is in the East — more emphatic, more 
vehement. It is quite necessary to fall somewhat mto the 
popular style. We stand, in the lecture room, on an open 
platform ^vith only a little movable desk or table, on which 
to lay our notes. On the whole I like it better than being 
seated in a desk, as they are hi Boston." (December 21, 

In March, 1843, he writes to Green that his receipts for 
the session have been more than 12,000. " There are a few 
good families who send for me, and I get occasionally a con- 
sultation. We never make a charge less than a dollar ; and 
considtation visits in ordinary cases — the first visit — are 
•fS.OO. These few enable me situated as I am, to make 
even a small and easy business somewliat profitable. I have 
made one visit twenty-five miles distant, for which the fee 
was S#25 ; and I saw a second patient, at the same time, inci- 
dentally, for ''t'5.00 more. You see from all this, that my 
place gives me rather more money than I could earn in Low- 
ell, for a much smaller amount of responsibility and labor. I 
have hardly, indeed, been called out of bed during the win- 
ter. In a business point of view I feel quite content with 
my situation." 

From an interestuig account of a consultation in the 
country we can gather how the planters of those days did 
their own doctoring: "Col. Anderson belongs to a class of 
men, j)retty large, I think, in this KState, — rather rougli, with 
a limited school education, but intelligent, shrewd, clear- 
headed, and enterprising. He has a farm, entirely away 
from any travelled road, of 500 acres ; but his principal busi- 
ness is that cf bagging and soa]) manufacturing, his farm 
serving only to feed his family. This consists of about one 
liundred, eighty or more of "Inch are his negroes. He has 
no nhvsician, whom he is wili.i.;. io trust, nearer tlian Lexina*- 
ton; and in nearly all connaon acute diseases treats the pa- 






tient himself. His duugliter, Mrs. Breck, was seized with 
acute pleunsy, soon after miscarriage, and her father had 
bled her twice, pretty freely, and given calomel and anti- 
mony, before any pliysician had seen her. He had followed 
tlie same course a year ago in the case of his wife." CFeb- 
ruary 18, 1844.) ^ 

In the same letter lie says : " Typhoid fever has been very 
Midely ])revalent in nniny parts of Kentucky for tlie past 
year. There were, it is said, 200 deaths in an adjacent 
county last summer and fall. It is evidently the common 
tever o± this country, u-ith all the features so familiar to us 
at the East."' 

In the autunm of 1844 he accepted the chair of the theory 
and practice of medicine at the University of Maryland 
Aniong the letters I find but one from Baltimore, and that is 
to Oliver VV eiidell Holmes about a review of his biok « The 
Philosophy of Medical Science," which had appeared that year. 
^^ In 1844 he accepted the cliair of materia medica and ob- 

woodstock stetrics m the Vermont Medical College, the session of whicli 
began in .March and continued for thirteen weeks. Among 
his colleagues were Alonzo Clark, Palmer and Edward M. 
Moore, and later John C. Dalton. Bartlett's name occurs in 
the catalogues of the school until 1854, the year before his 

In May, 1845, lie and Mrs. Bartlett sailed for Europe. 
Ill a letter to Green, July 12th, there is an interesting 
reierence to Louis and James Jackson, Jr. ; " I Iiave seen a 
good deal of Louis, who has been very civil and attentive. I 
dmed with him soon after my arrival, and met there, amongst 
others, Leuset and Grisolle, two of his most intimate medical 
friends. I never see him that he does not speak of voung 
Jackson — ce pauvre Jackson, as he calls him. He told me 
with a great deal of feehng, that Jackson, the last night tliat 
he spent in Paris, wrote him a letter from his liotel, which 
was moistened with his tears, and tliat he tliouglit Jackson 
was almost as much attached to him as to liis father " In 
another letter he speaks, too, of his very cordial recei)tion bv 
Louis. '■ '' 

They spent the winter on the Continent, traveling about, 
chiefly in Ita y, and in the spring went to London. In 
a letter dated June 17, 1846, tliere is an interesthig sketcli 
ot a magnetic seance at the house of Professor Elhotson 

visit to 


seized with 
V father had 
b1 and anti- 
ad foHowed 
ife." (Feb- 

as been veiy 
or tlie i)ast 
an adjacent 
he common 
iiiliar to us 

f the theory 


and that is 

btok, "The 

xl that year. 

ca and ob- 

m of whicli 

s. Among 

3d ward M. 

le occurs in 

before his 

or Europe. 

lave seen a 
ttentive. I 
■e, amongst 
ate medical 
: of young 
le told me, 

night tliat 
otel, which 
lit Jackson 
itlier.'" In 
iception by 

ing about, 

kIou. In 

ng sketch 


of University College, who subsequently came to such 
a grief over hypnotism. "And then he ran full tilt off 
upon his hobby, 'animal magnetism,' calUng it one of the 
most sacred and holy of all subjects, one of the greatest 
truths, and so on. Di-. Forbes, tlie editor, lie spoke of as ' a 
wretcli,' all because the doctor has shown up some of Elliot- 
son's magnetic operations. Dr. E. afterwards invited me to 
see some magnetic phenomena at his house. I went about 3 
o'clock in tho afternoon, and found his spacious and elegant 
drawing-room quite fdled witli well-dressed gentlemen and 
ladies, assembled for the same purpose. The doctor had two sub- 
jects, one a young, delicate looking girl, and the other a dam- 
sel of a certain age, upon whom he performed the standard 
and stereotyped experiments — putting them into tlie mag- 
netic sleep, stiffening their liml)s, leading them round the 
room with a common magnet, exciting their phrenological 
organs, and so on. I can only say that I was not specially 
delighted with Elliotson's manner, and that if I was to 
choose a man by whom 1 should swear, without using my 
own eyes, certainly it would not be him." 

In the same letter he speaks of having seen a great deal of 
Forbes, editor of the Medlco-OhlunileaCRevieiv ; of Marshall 
Hall, of Walshe, " a young man and a good fellow ; " of Sir 
Henry Holland, and of tliat interesting American physician, 
who lived so long in England, Dr. Boott, and of Dr. South- 
wood Smith at the Fever Hospital. 

On liis return from Europe we find him during the session 
of 1846-47 in his old cliair at Lexington, whence he writes 
on March 18, 1847, to his friend Green, from wliich a para- 
grapli rehitiug to the second edition of liis book on " Fevers " 
may be quoted: " I liave been drudging away all winter at 
my second edition. I do not feel any great' interest in it, 
tliougli I hope and intend to make a good book of it. The 
first edition, for a monograph, has sold very well, mostly at 
the South and West ; so well at least that Lea & Blanehard 
propose pul)lisliing the second edition and paying also some- 
thing for the riglit to do so." 

The sessions of 1847-48-49 were spent at the Transyl- 
vania University. In tlie spring of 1848 there is a letter 
from Pliny Earle, dated April 16tli, saying that he had re- 
ceived a catalogue of the Medical Department of Transyl- 
vania University, from which he had received his first inti- 








At the 



New York. 

mation of Burtlett's resignation of the professorsliip. He 
asks Bartlett's advice as to the propriety of applying for the 

On March 13, 1849, he received the appointment as pro- 
fessor of the tlieory and practice of medicine in tlie Univer- 
sity of Louisville. At this time, in a letter from Dr. J. Cobb, 
we have the first intimation in the letters of ill health, as' 
there is the sentence : "Accept my best wishes for your 
comi)lete restoration to health." The University of Louis- 
ville had drawn heavily upon the classes of the other West- 
ern schools, chiefly at the expense of Lexington, mid the Fac- 
ulty when Bartlett joined it was very strong, comprising such 
well-known men as the elder Gi'oss, the elder Ymidell, 
Rogers, Benjamin Silliman, Jr., and Palmer. 

The condition of medical politics at that time in the town 
of Louisville was not satisfactory, and a new school had 
been started in opposition to the University, and among the 
Bartlett letters are a number from the elder Yandell which 
show a state of very high tension. Bartlett spent but one 
session in Louisville. He and Gross accepted chairs in 
the University of New York. The appointment of the for- 
mer to the chair ol^the institutes and practice of medicine is 
dated Sept. 19, 1850. From some remarks in a letter from 
Yandell it is evident that Bartlett did not find the position 
in New York very congenial. Gross found his still less so, 
and returned to Louisville the following year. J. W. Draper, 
the strong man of the University School, had secured Bart- 
lett iiiid hi a letter dated Aug. 12, 1850, he promised him a 
salary of at least 83,500. The same letter shows how thor- 
oiighly private were the medical schools of that day: "It 
perhaps may be proper to I'epeat what is the condition of the 
real estate. Tlie college Iiuilding is owned equally by the 
six professors. Its estimated value when Dr. Dickson left 
us in tlie si)ring was !!'78,600, and there is a mortgage upon 
it of 848,000, beaiiiig interest of six per cent. Excluding 
this mortgage the share of each professor is therefore 85,000, 
and a mutual covenant exists among us that on the retire- 
ment or decease of one of the Faculty his investment shall 
be restored to him or his heirs — the new-comer starting in 
all respects in the i)osition he occupied." 

During these years Bartlett seems to have lieen very busy 
at work at the microscope, and there is a letter from Alonzo 


jsorsliip. He 
•lying tor the 

nient as pro- 
tlie Univer- 
i Dr. J. Cobb, 
ill health, as 
hes for your 
ty of Louis- 
1 other West- 
, aiul tlie Fac- 
iiprisiug such 
-ler Ymidell, 

in tlie town 
iv scliool had 
'. among the 
uidell which 
ent but one 
id chairs in 
t of the for- 

medicine is 
L letter from 
the position 
still less so, 

W. Draper, 
cured Bart- 
lised him a 
s iiow thor- 

day: "It 
lition of the 
ally by the 
)icks()n left 
•tgage upon 

fore !?o,000, 
I the retire- 
tment sliall 

starting in 

I very busy 
om Alonzo 


Clark, dated June 15, 1848, descriptive of a fine new Obcr- 
hauser (the Zeiss of that day), and in 1851 there is an inter- 
estuig letter from Jeffries Wynuui, g-lving a list of the most 
important Avorks on invertebrate zoology. 

Among liis colleagues in the University were Draper, Mar- 
tyn Paine and frranville Sharp Pattison. Things do not seem 
to have worked very smoothly. In the spi-ing of 1851 over- At the 

tures were made to him from the College of Physicimis and Sur- S'ltl^a^Js 
geons of New York, in which Faculty were his warm friends, surgeons. 
Alonzo Clark ai>d Willard Parker, and he was elected to tlie ^'""^ ^'''^ 
chair of materia medica and medical jurisprudence in the fol- 
lowing year, 1S52. Here he lectui'ed during the next two 
sessions until compelled by ill healtli to retire. 

I may fittingly conclude tliis section of my address Avith a 
sentence from a sketch of Bartlett's fife by Ids friend Elisiia 
Huntington : " Never was the professor's chair more gracefully 
filled than by Dr. Bartlett. His urbane and courteous man- 
ners. Ins native and simple eloquence, his remarkable power 
of illustration, the singular beauty and sweetness of his style, 
all combhied to render him one of the most popular ai-d atl 
tractive of lecturers. The driest and most barren subject, 
under his touch, became instinct with life and interest, and 
the path, in which the traveler looked to meet with briers and 
weeds only, he was surprised and delighted to find strewn 
Avitli flowers, beautiful and fragrant. There was a mao-ic 
about the man you could not withstand ; a fascination you 
could not resist." 


Bartlett began his career as a medical writer witli the aitthor. 
Month] ij Journal of Mcdieal Literature and American Medical The 
StudentH' Gazette, only three numbers of which were issued. Jounla?' 
He says in the introductory address, dated Oct. 15, 18:'.l, 
that there are plenty of practical journals of high character 
and extensive circulation, but lie wishes to see one devoted 
to " medical liistory, medical literature, accounts of medical 
institutions and hospitals, medical biographv, including 
sketches of the cliaracter, lives and writings of the chief mas- 
ters of our art, and of all such as have in any way influenced 
Its destinies and left the deep traces of their'labors on its his- 
tory. ... To tlie medical student and the young prac- 




titioner, to all those who aspire to any higher acquisitions 
than the knowledge that calomel purges and salivates, and 
that tartarized antimony occasions vomiting, who are not 
wiUing to rest supinely satisfied in a routhie familiarity with 
doses and symptoms — a familiarity which practice and habit 
render in the end almost mechanical — we cannot but think 
these matters must be interesting." And he adds: "The 
devotion of an occasional hour to such pursuits must have a 
tendency to enlarge and liberalize the mind. It will help to 
keep alive and stimulate in the yomig medical scholar the 
sometimes flagging energies of study. By calling his atten- 
tion and directing his desires to high standards of acquisition 
and excellence, it will urge him on towards their attainment. 
Delightful and fascinating, in many respects, as the study of 
his profession may be to him, there are many hours which 
must be occupied with mental and bodily drudgery. He 
must make what to others would be loathsomeness pleasure 
to himself. Amid the wear and tear, the toil and fatigue of 
such pursuits, he needs at times some intellectual recreation 
and stimulus, and where can he find one pleasanter or more 
appropriate than in surveying the career, and studying the 
characters of those who have trodden before him the same 
laborious path, and who have followed it on to its high and 
bright consummation ? If our profession ever vindicates its 
legitimate claim to the appellation of liberal, it must be cul- 
tivated with some other than the single aim of obtaining 
patients for the sole purpose of getting for services rendered 
an equivalent in fees." 

In the first number there is a statement that on a future 
occasion the Jbwrna? will give a "detailed consideration of 
the character of the old physician of Cos — the venerable 
fa^^^her of physic, and of the reform which he effected in med- 
ical science," a promise which was not fulfilled to the profes- 
sion for many years, as Bartlett's well-known lecture on Hip- 
pocrates, the last, indeed, of his professional writings, was 
not issued until 1852. The literature of science, its philoso- 
phy, its history, the history of the lives and labors of the 
founders and cultivatoi-s — these he believed it important for 
the student to cultivate. 

Among the articles in these three numbers there are some 
of special merit. One signed S. N., On the Claims of Med- 
icine to the Charader of Certainty, may have suggested to 


i- acquisitions 
salivates, and 
, who are not 
imiliarity with 
;tice and habit 
lot but think 

adds : " The 
i must have a 
[t will help to 
d scholar the 
ling his atten- 
I of acquisition 
sir attainment. 
IS the study of 
hours which 
Irudgery. He 
3ness pleasure 
md fatigue of 
ual recreation 
anter or more 

studying the 
him the same 
I its high and 

vindicates its 
; must be cul- 
1 of obtaining 
vices rendered 

it on a future 
onsideration of 
-the venerable 
ffected in med- 
1 to the profes- 
lecture on Hip- 
writings, was 
[ice, its philoso- 
1 labors of the 
it important for 

there are some 
yiaims of Med- 
e suggested to 

Rartlett in his well-known essay, " On the Degree of Cer- 
tainty in Medicine." Tlie enterprise was not a success, and 
as liartlett had said in his introductory address, "of all 
weaklif things we moat heartily pity weakly periodicals," he 
had the good sense after three numbers haxl been issued to 
give up a publication wliich the profession did not sustain. 

In July, 1832, he became tussociated with A. L. Pierson 
and J. B. Flint in a much more pretentious and important 
journal, the Medical Mai/azine, a monthly publication which Tho„^^j 
continued for three years. It was a very well conducted Magazine, 
periodical, with excellent original articles and strongly writ- 
ten editorials. John D. Fisher's original paper on The 
Cephalic Brain Murviur occw^ in Volume II., and in the same 
one is an excellent paper by E. Hale, Jr., on TJie Typhoid 
Fever of this Climate, which is of special interest as contain- 
ing very accurate statements of the differences between the 
common New England autumnal fever and the t>i)hu8 as de- 
scribed by Armstrong and Smith. There are also reports of 
three autopsies giving an account of ulceration in the small 
intestine, among the first to be published in tliis country. 
There are in addition numerous well-written critical reviews. 
Among the latter is one of the most virulent productions of 
that most virulent of men, Dr. Charles Caldwell. It is entitled 
" Medical Language of Literature." I have heard it said in 
Philadelphia that Dr. Samuel Jackson never forgave the bit- 
terness of the attack in it upon his " Principles of Medi- 

In Volume III. there was the interesting announcement 
that a dollar a page would be paid for all original communi- 

In 1831 appeared a little work entitled, "Sketches of the {^^fl"* 
Character and Writings of Eminent Living Surgeons and fuysiciana 
Physicians of Paris," translated from the French of J. L. H. 
Peisse. Of the nine lives, those of Dupuytren and Brous- 
sais are still of interest to us, and there is no work in Eng- 
lish from which one can get a better insight into the history 
of medicine in Paris in the early part of this century. One 
little sentence in the translator s preface is worth quoting : 
"After making all reasonable allowtmce for natural tact or 
talent, and for tlie facilities and advantages of instruction to 
be had in extensive medical establishments, it will be found 
that 8^w(i^, intense, untiring, unremitted 8fitt?«/, is the only 
foundation of professional worth and distinction." 





l':i lev's 

" Biirtlett 

A prcat stiTiiiilus lind lu-en giwu to tlio study of iihrcuology 
hy tlio visit of Si»iir7,lit'im to this i-oiiiitry. lie gave iicomse 
of six lt'cturt'8 on tlif anatomy of tlic brain and spinal cord 
at ono of the apartnionts of tlic Medical College in Sej)tem- 
l)cr of tliat year, and sul)S('(|ucnlly a popular course of lec- 
tures on phrenology. In 1H:\'2 he died in Boston of tyi)hus 
fever. His hrain, it is stated, was in the possession of the 
Jioston I'hrenoh)gical Society, before which, in January, 
1^88, Hartlettgave an interesting address on scientific phre- 

In ls:^0 Bartlett edited " Paley's Natural Theology," that 
delightful book, dear especially to those of us who were 
trained in religious colleges. To some of us at least the 
freshness of the natural theology-, which in Paley's hands was 
really a delightful connnentary on anatomy and physiology, 
was a happy change from artilicial theology, or even from the 
"Horae Paulinm " of the same author. 

Bartlett's claim to remembrance, so far us his medical writ- 
ings are concerned, rests maiidy on his work on " P'evers " 
issued in 1842, and subsequent editions in the years 1847, 
18;")2 and 1857. It remains one of the most notable of con- 
tributions of American physicians to the subject. Between 
the time of Bartlett's visit to Paris and 1840, a group of 
students had studied under Louis, and had returned to this 
country thoroughly familiar with tyi)hoid fever, the prevalent 
form in the Fnaich capital at that time. In another place^ 
I have told in detail how hirgely through their labors the 
profession learned to recognize the essential differences be- 
tween the two i)reval(!nt forms of fever, typhoid and typhus. 
The writings on fever chiefly accessible to the American reader 
of that day were the English works of Fordyce, Armstrong, 
Southwood Smith, and Tweedie, in which, as Bartlett says, 
" they describe a fever or form of fever (that is typhus) 
rarely met with in this country," andthewriti i^^did not act- 
ually represent the state of our kiu)wledge upon the giibject. 
Indeed, for a number of years later a chaci: nialMon of 
mind prevailed among the writers in Great Britain, and it 
was not until 1840-50 that William Jenner, by a fresh series 
of accurate observations, brought the British medical opinion 
into line. As the British and Foreign Me(lico-Chiriir(jioal lie- 

ut ,{"''^ ";';•'■« p/ -''"■' ('^ «" American Medicine, Johns Hoiikins Hospital Bulletin, Au- 

of jilirciiology 
R'avo iicDuise 
(1 Hpiniil cord 
je in Scptein- 
course of lee- 
ton of typhus 
•session of the 
in J an u my, 
icientitic jihre- 

leology," that 
us who were 
I ut least the 
^y's haiiilH was 
tl pliysiology, 
even from the 

i medical writ- 
on " Fevers " 
e years 1847, 
Dtable of con- 
it. Between 
0, a group of 
urned to this 

the prevalent 
lother place* 
iir labors the 
ifferences be- 
l and typhus, 
iierican render 
, Armstrong, 
iartlett says, 
t is typhus) 
;>!di(] notact- 
i the ? ibject. 

"t'lidiaon of 
ntain, and it 
a IVesh series 
idical opinion 
liriirjical Re- 

)ltal Bulletin, Au- 


%mn\ in a most complimentary notice of Bnrtletl'H work, says, 
"A iiistory of liritish fevers such as Louis has furnished to 
France, or such us given in the volume under discussion, ilid 
not exist." Still, even at that diite, 1^44, the /^c/m- ex- 
pressed the ultia-coiiservativc opinion held in l-^ngland, that 
the coimnon continued fever, or the h)w nervous fever (»f 
lluxhuni, was only a mild form of typhus fever. The work 
is dedic.iteil to his friends, James .Jackson, of Boston, and 
W. W. (I"'iliard, of I'hiladtdi)hia ; as he states, "a history of 
two tliseases, many points of \\lii(.h tliey, especially among 
his osvu countrymen, have diligently and successfully stud- 
ied and illustrated." 

As to the work itscH', the interest to-day rests ehietly with 
the remarkably accurate picture wliicli is given of tyi)hoid 
fever — u picture the main outlint?s of which are as well 
and iirmly drawn as in any work which has appeared since. 
It is written with gi'cat clearness, in logical order, and he 
shows on every l»age an accurate acquaintance with ihe liter- 
ature of the day, and, as the author of the review already 
mentioned remarks, u knowledge also of that best of books, 
the book of nature. 

The practical character of Bartlett's mind is indicated by 
the briefness with wliich \w discusses the favorite topic of 
the day, namtdy, the theory (»f fever. He acknowledged at 
the outset that the materials tor any satisfactory theory of 
typhoid fever did not exist. He went so far as to claim that 
the fundamental primary alteration was in the blood, and that 
the local lesion was really secoudary, and he refers to the 
prevalent theory of fever as "wholly a creation of fancy; the 
offspring of a false generalization and of a spurious philoso- 
phy. What then can its theory be but the shadow of a 
sliade?" This work immediately ]»lacc(l Bartlett in the front 
rank of American pliysicians of the day. It had a i)owt'rful 
influence on the profession of the country. Among his let- 
ters there is an interesting and characteristic one from James 
Jackson, already referred to in the dedication. Acknowl- 
edging tlie reeei[)t of a copy, he says: "1 am now vvriting 
to express to you the great satisfaction the l)ook has given 
me. I think that it entirely answers the end that yon [U'o- 
posed. It. in fai't, transkites to the common reader, in a most 
clear style and lucid method, the acquisitions which science 
has made on its subjects Avithin the last few years. Nowhere 


ThP I'hil- 
osiiiihy >f 

else can the same conipreliensive view of those subjects be 
foi.nd. What may be the conclusions ol medical men in re- 
gard to essential fevers twenty years hence I would not pre- 
tend to say. It iscertiiin their views have changed very much 
within a slmrter period, and if new discoveries are made in 
ten years to eume 1 (h)i\bt not you will be ready to change 
yours. We must take to-day the truth so far as we know it, 
and add to it day by day as we learn more."' 

It IS evident from iiis letters that the success of the work 
on fevers was a great gratiticatlon to Dr. Bartlett. The sec- 
ond edition was issued in 1847, and while the history of 
tvphoid and tyjjhus fever remained nuich in the same state, 
with certain additions and developments, the subject of 
pericidical and yellow fevers were greatly extended. The 
third edition was issued in 1852. The fourth edition was 
edited by Bartlett's friend, Ahmzo Clark, of New York. The 
dedication of the second, third and fourth editions was to 
Dr. John Ovne Green, of Lowell, " with whom the early and 
active part of the writer's life \v'as passed ; in a personal 
friendship which no cloud, for a single moment, ever shad- 
owed or chilled : and in a professional intercourse whose de- 
licrhtful harmonv no selfish interest nor personal jealousy 

ever disturV)ed."' 

From every standpoint "Bartlett on Fevers" may be re- 
garded as one of the most successful medical works issued 
from the medical press and it richly deserves the comment 
of the distinguished editor of the fourth edition: "The 
question niiiy be fairly raised whetlicr any book hi our pro- 
fession illustrates more eleai'ly tlie beauties of sound reason- 
ing and the advantages of vigorous generalization iVom care- 
fully selected facts. Certainly no author ever brought to his 
lalxir a more liigh-miiided iiurjiose of representing the truth 
in its simplicity and in its iuhiess, wliile few luive been 
possessed of liigher gifts to discern, and gracefully to ex- 
hibit it." 

''An Essay on the Thilosophy of Medicine," 1H44, a_ classic 
ui Americiui medical liteiature, is tlie most eharacteristic of 
IJartlett's works, and tlie one to which in the future students 
will turn most often, since it re^jreseuts one of the most suc- 
cessful attem])ts to a[)ply tiie [)rinciplcs of deductive rea- 
soning to nu'dieine. aiul it moreover illustrates the mental atr 
titude of an acute and thouglitful oliservcr in the middle of 


subjects be 
1 men in re- 
ulcl not pre- 
■d very much 
are made in 
ly to change 

we know it, 

of the work 
t. The sec- 
le history of 

I same state, 

! subject of 
ended. The 
edition was 
w York. The 
tions was to 
;he early and 
in a personal 
t, ever shad- 
se whose de- 

II al jealousy 

' may be re- 
^vorks issued 
the comment 
ition : " The 
: in our pro- 
iound reason- 
)ii from carc- 
)roug'lit t<» his 
ng the trutli 
;w have been 
:efully to ex- 

IH44, a classic 
iracteristic of 
iture students 
the niDst sue- 
I'duclivc rea- 
the mental at- 
lie middle of 

th» centu-y. The work consists of two parts: in tl,e first 
science i^'deflned and its onions htid do,vn Ascertamea fa«ts, 
ith t^Jir relations to otters obtained by o''-"»"°» .^;X 

•ni nncpTver and as a LueuiiSL. -u- ^^^^ v ' i £ 

anv time or Jn any degree his strong neck to the yoke of 
iZcSesis it was always with a perfect consciousness ot his 
aM y fw 11 to shake it oft', as the lion shakes the dew.lrop 
fi^m humane" He quotes from Sir Humphrey Davey 
!:Wheu I com^^^^ the variety of theories that may be formed 
on t e slen.ler foundation of one or two facts, I am convn ced 
tLt it?s ilie business of the true philosopher to avo.d them 

'^'Sfive'm'imary propositions with which the second part 
opens contain the pith of the argument: 

^ Proposition First. - All medical science consis s m a.cei- 
tainirfcL, or phenomena, or events; with their relations 
to 2r fact;, o/phenomena, or events; the whole classdied 

"^p'ZSt .^..o,uZ.-Each separate class of l^cts, phe- 
v.omena a d events, with tlieir relationships, constitutmg, as 
ai as il>ey <'0, medical science, can be ascertamed in only one 
wav u d that is by observation, or experience. They can- 
n^belducd, or inferred, from any other class o^ t>u>ls, 
phenomena, events, or relationships by any process of mduc- 
tion or reasoning, independent ot observation. 

FrZosition Third. ^A^^ .bsolnle law, or principle, ot med- 
icd en c consists in an absolute and rigorous generahza- 
^ u ome of the facts, ph.n.nnena, events, <vr relau, 
bv he sun. of which the science is constituted. Ihe actual 
aLiilau.ablc laws, or principles, of medical science are, tor 
the most ])art, not al)Solute but approximative. 

V Cif/"" fo„rth- " ^^'^^-^ ^nviviu... as tliey are called, 
,,; Lost instances, hypothetical explanations, - mf-F^" 
t tUon. merel^■, of the ascertained phenomena, and their rela- 
; ships, of niedical science. These explanations eonsis 
eert iii other assume.l and unasc'ertamed phenomena and 
el- ioii^mw They do not ,.onstilnte a legitimate element 
;^ merlli'sJience. ^ All medical science is absolutely inde- 
pendent of these explanations. 


Proposition Fifth. — Diseases, like all other objects of nat- 
ural history, are susceptible of classification and arrangement. 
This classification and arrangement will be iiatural and per- 
fect just in proportion to tlie number, the importance, and the 
degree of the similarities and the dissimilarities between the 
diseases themselves. 

l^artlett is the strongest American interpreter of the mod- 
ern French school of medical observation, which " is cliarac- 
terized by its stric. adherence to the study and analvsis of 
morbid phenomena and their relationships ; 'by the accuracy 
the positiveness, and the minute detail which it has carried 
into this study an<l analysis : and by its rejection as an essen- 
tial or legitmiate element of science of all a priori reasoning 
or speculation. Tlie spirit which animates and guides and 
moves It IS expressed in the saying of Kosseau, ' that all sci- 
ence is in the facts or phenomena of nature and their relation- 
ships, and not in the miml of man, wliich discovers and in- 
terprets them.' It is the true protectant school of medicine 
It eitlier rejects as apocryphal, or holds as of no bindino- au- 
thority, all the tnulitions of the fathers, unless they are sus- 
tained and sanctioned by its own exi)erience." 

There are weak points in his arguments, some of which are 

T^ i.^"'"'^'' ^''* "' '"' "''^'^ '^^'t^^'^^^ i" t''^' J^^'^fi^J^ (^nd Foreiqn 
MedK-o-auruniical Beview (.July, 1845), but it is the M-ork of 
a strong and thoughtful mind, and for a time, at least, it ha.l a 
powertul mfluence in the profession. A contemporary writer, 
Samuel Henry Diuksoi^'-^ speaks of it in the following terms: 
"It was particularly well-timed, and addressed effectivelv to 
the reqmremenl>! of the i)r..fession, at tlie period of its publi- 
cation. _ It breathes a spirit of th.mghtful and considerate 
s^'eptieism, which was then needed to temper the headlong 
Habit ot conhdent polyi.harmacy prevalent over our country. 
• ; \ A. ;!'''" /i^^'^''^'«'^*-^'^' liowever, I)v Hartlett, on this 
side of the Atlantic, and on the other by Forbes, he (the or- 
thodox discij)le-) stoj.pcHl to listen and consider. Tliese lifted 
men spoke with authority; they pl.-aded impressivehs elo- 
quently, wisely. If, in the natural ardor of controversy, they 
went somewhat too far, let that slight fault be forgiven for 
tlie great good they accmplished. Nav, let them be iionored 
tor tiie courage and frankness with whieh thev attacked 
prevalent error, an.l risked their popularity and position by 

" Gross : American .Aredioal liinjrraj'liy. I'Jfii. p. 7r,(i, 




jects of nat- 
al and per- 
nce, and the 
)et\veen the 

)i the mod- 
" is charac- 
analysis of 
e accuracy, 
has carried 
as an esseu- 
', reasoning 
guides and 
:hat all sci- 
eir relation- 
n\s ajul iii- 

f medicine. 
)indino' im- 

^'y are sus- 

f which are 
nd Forehjn 
:lie work of 
ist, it had a 
•ary writer, 
ing terms : 
'Ctively to 
" its publi- 
i headlong 
r country. 
:t, on this 
e (the or- 
lese gifted 
^^'ely, elo- 
"(M'sy, tliey 
rgiven for 
>e honored 
isition hy 


ftssailing modes of practice rendered familiar by custom, and 
everywhere adopted and trusted to." . • .:„ Ti,e 

In 1848 appeared one of IJartlett's most characteristic 7^|^,,„, 
works, a little volume of eiglity-four pages, entitled "An In- ^^^ 
nuirv h>to the Degree of Certainty of Medicine, and mto the 
N ature and Extent of its Power over Disease." 1 he icono- 
clastic studies of Louis and certain of the Pans physicians, 
and the advocacy of expectancy hy the leadei^ ot the \ leima 
school, had between 1880 and 18oU <listurbed he precession 
notahttle, and in 184^, appeared an article byDr.lorbe., 
in which, as IJartlett said, were drawn " in strong and exag- 
gerated colors the manifold imperfections ot medical sci- 
ence and the discouraging uncertainties o± medical ar . 
These circumstances had ccmibined to shake and dis url) the 
oeneral ccmlidence in the profession, with the eftect that " the 
hold which medicine has so long had up.^i the popular mind is 
loosened ; there is a widespread skepticism as to its power c^ 
curing diseases, and men are everywhere to be iound ^ 
deny its pretensions as a science, and reject the '^euehts in 
l)lessings which it proffers them as an art. lo Bartiett it 
api.earwl high time to speak a clear and earnest word tor the 
See whidi we study ami teach, and for the art which we 
inculcate and practise, and in tins essay he set lumseli e 
task of yuidicatuig the .•laims ot med.cme to the regaul and 
cntidence of mankind. in his en.leavor " to show how ai 
and with what measure of certainty and of cmistanc-y ve are 
able to control, to mitigate and to remove disease Ba lett 
oecuDied at the outset very advanced ground tor that date. 
We Inust renumiber that the general l)ody ot the profession 
had the most confidence in drugs, and polypharmacy 
wa dmostas nuu-h u> vogue as in the seventeenth and 
cioh'ecnth centuries. H.e reception of the essay m certain 
quarters in<licates how shocking its tone appeared to some ot 
tl,e stahl old conservatives of the day 1 c.une .icross a re- 
yi^.vvof it in the MnUml Examinn-, November, 1848, tiom 
which I give the following extract : " Tins is a curious pro- 
duction, U.e like ot wlu.h we have seldom -- rom ^ p n o 
any one who ha.l ])ass.d the age ot a sophomore \\ at makes 
U ke nun. rennnkable is the circumstance f^ J^^^ 
is a gentleman ot e.lucation and experience mu 1^'^ a^^' «^ 
^yorks which have given him a wule reputation T e toice 
f le rebound sul iciently indicates the intensity with which 




the attack was felt. EartlettVs position, however remin,]^ 
one soinewhat of the sermon of the hberal ScoLrPres - 1 
nan on "things which cannot be shaken/M^^^^ eh he mo' 
ceecled at the outset to shake off three-fomlhs of he e er 
ished behefs of Evangehcal Christianity. 

After a preliminary discussion on an-itomy and nhvsiolocrv 
and on the remarkable rapidity with which th e Sfi 
^Nere progressnig, he proceeds to speak of the state of m W 
ogy and therapeutics as illustrated in the wpiI htZ v 

fei to the result of us analysis of the evidence. He c ssi 
fies tiie cases into, tirst, those which terminate natui^llv ,Tl" 

At times, and in dcrrives (liffprii..^ i.jfi 


'ever, reuiiiuls 

)tch Preshyte- 

which he pro- 

of the cher- 

:kI physiology, 
'lese sciences 
tate of i)athol- 
wiiowii disease 
n-e than to re- 
He chissi- 
laturally and 
aiedical treat- 
group whicli 
stance which 
said of the 
fatal;" and, 
ither in one 
ids ui)on tlie 
I judiciously 
of the cases, 
itiucnt of tlie 
U'e and lini- 
liseases, and 
t' preventive 

he American 
enable us to 
'11 a kindred 
of Pcnnsyl- 
, "He lias 
the resj)ect 
al] sound- 
under the 
>"«ture, the 

eel that the 
: Avorth the 
^'1' and tlie 
; we have 
liave heen 


wrongly interpreted, and smitten perhaps in the house of our 
friends, the worries of heart to which we doctors are so sub- 
ject makes us feel bitterly the uncertainties of medicine as a 
profession, and at times make us despair of its future. In a 
voice that one may trust Bartlett concludes his inquiry with 
these memorable words, which I (piote, i}i the hope that they 
may soothe the heartache of any pessimistic brother : " There a nowe 
is no process which can reckon up the amount of good which to'ou/ 
the science and art of medicine have conferred upon the profession, 
human race ; there is no moral calculus that can grasp and 
com])rehend the sum of tlieir beneficent operations. Ever 
since the first dawn of civilization and learning, through 

' the dark backward, and abysm of time,' 

they have been the true and constant friends of the suffering 
sons and daughters of men. Through their ministers _ and 
disciples, they have cheered the desponding ; they have light- 
ened the load of human sorrow ; they have dispelled or dimm- 
ished the g^oom of the sick-ehamber ; they have plucked 
from tlie pillow of pain its thorns, and made the hard couch 
soft with the i)oppies of delicious rest : they have let in the 
lis'ht of joy upon dark and desolate dwellings ; tiiey have re- 
knidled the hunp of hoi^e in the bosom of despair; they have 
called back the radiance of the lustreless eye and the bloom 
of the fading cheek ; tliev have sent m^w vig.n- through the 
failing limbs ; and, tinallv, when exhausted in all their other 
resources, and ballled in their skill — handmaids of philoso- 
phy and rebgi(m -— they have blunted the arrows of death, 
anJl rendered less rugged iind precipitous the inevitable path- 
way to the tomb. In the circle of human duties, I do not 
know of anv, short of heroic and perilous daring, or religious 
martynU.m and sclf-sacriticc, higher and nobler, than those of 
the phvsician. His daily round of labor is crowded with 
beneficence, and his night'lv sleep is l)roken, that others may 
have better rest, llis whole life is a blessed ministry of con- 
sohilion and ho[ie." 

The last of P)artletfs strictly medical publications was a 
little monograph on the "History, Diagnosis and Treatment 
of Edematous Larvn^'itis," publislu'd in Louisville at tjie 
time he held tlie chair .>f practice at the University, ui ISoO. 
It is a .•arefully prepared monograph, based largely on the 



studies of Valleix, and to which u iVe.h interest had I.een 
giveii him ,y he observations of Dr. Gurdou Huck, ^W 

the eilematous membranes. 



A^•D Poet 

Natural y studious, fond of poelvv, liislorv, l,io.r,,,,,l,v ,,,,1 
imns of general ,,n,„tu.e. liartlett had a.ui.lo onportuniti.^ 

.;;.v |in,c hot. ,„i.o alone, ..tlit'l ii'/Z:^^^,,;^:^:^ 
hours u, „K,IUation nuteh oftener than' when e ",*;.., 
the nore varied and active affairs of i.usiness at h, ,m i 
Hunk that ahvavs leave Pittstield with H, M, d uve 
pm ot my heiiig sonienhat strengthened ■■ linrion Zun 
lus immortal treatise with the advice rT,\T V! ''" 

"Otidle," hut the true studen In ^ne , art ,f 'h s 1 'if '. "I 
least, shouM know the "fruitful hours f 11] orea^ ' Fo, 
.^a,,y years Bartlett enjoyed a leisure know , toihn to fov 
professors ot medicine, tlie fruits of wliich are luu iS^t i„ l 

r ';Siia;^r:^'S:;'r '",;?-^"- ' >- 

Bartlett was at his best in the oceasi.m'd ndr]-,>« ■ i 

expression, that florid warmth wl„.„ ■"' ' '"'"''"'""J "1 
conunonly marks the p . i;,:;'-™.;' '/'^'■'■■^' " '"'i.' 

Anio, these addressci the, i-e tviiu ::';;; ■';;:j;i™„r;r;:-i.- 


t had I)een 

!k, of New 


Tapli}- and 
md in the 
rs to Green 
'd deal of 
ihng away 
ngaged in 
home. I 
and purer 
'litary, oe 
lis life at 
use."' For 
I}' to few 
fest in his 
?ion there 
icol) IJige- 
high and 
" Princi- 
ditioii of 
'Ived, ol)- 
his niedi- 
ic Trouj- 

and, as 
ery early 

of July 



cility of 

s, \vh it'll 

of a per- 

manent place in our literature. Perhaps the most character- 
istic is one entitled, "Tlie Head and the Heart, or the Rela- 
tive importance of Intellectual and :\loral Education," which 
is a stirring plea for a higher tone in social and political mor- 
ality. In the same clear, ringing accent he speaks in his ad- 
dress on Spurzheim of the dangers of democracy. In a lec- 
ture on the " Sense of the Beautiful," delivered in 1843, 
liartlett appears as an apostle of culture, pleadhig in glowing 
language for tiie education of this faculty. One short frag- 
ment I must quote : " Amongst the Hebrews, and in the age 
of :\Ioses, it was linked to religion; it dwelt amidst the mys- 
teries of Worship and Faith. It brought costly offeniigs 
to the costlier altar; it hung the tabernacle with its curtams 
of fine twined linen, and blue, and purple, and scarlet ; and 
with clienibim of cunning work ; it arrayed the high priest 
of Jehovah in his gorgeous and consecrated garments, and on 
the mitre of pure gold upon his forehead, it graved, like the 
en o-ravimi- of a signet — Holiness to the Lord. At a later 
da?, an.rlunongst a widely different people, it became the 
handmaid of a refined and luxurious sensuality. It lapped 
the soul of (ireece in a sensual elysium. Its living impersona- 
tions were Pericles aiid Aspasia. It called the mother of 
love from the froth of the sea, and bound her z(.ne with its 
cestus ; it filled the hills of Arcady with ileet Oreads ; it 
o-raced with half naked Naiads the fountains and the rivers. 
It crowned the Acropolis with the Parthenon, and it embod- 
ied its highest conceptions of physical grace and beauty m 
the Venus and the Apollo. At other periods during 
the history of our race, it has manifested itself iii other torms 
than these; under other cij'cumstaiices, aspects and influences, 

and with other results." , 

In 1848 he delivered the Fourth of July oration be tore his 
old friends in Lowell. At the oiuMiing he refers to the_ tact 
that twenty years before he ha.l orcui)ied the same position. 
" It was tile dewy morning of my manho(Ml ; 'time had not 
thinned mv flowhig hair*; life, with its boundless h()pes anc 
its o,,lden Visions, spread far and fair before me ; ami cheered 
bv your words of encouragement, and aided by your helping 
h"ands, — your associate and (>o-worker, and m your service ; 
a strano-er, but welcomed with frank confidence and trust,— 
I bad just entered upon its arduous and upward path- 

The Head 

and the 

Tho Sense 
of the 

Fomth of 








on Hlp-J 

In 1849 appeared a "Brief Sketch of the Life, Character 
and Writings of William Charles Wells," the Soutli Carolinian 
Tory, who suhsequentiy became a distinguished man of sci- 
ence hi London, and who was well known for his researches 
on the phenomena of dew. 

One of the last of liartlett's publications was "A Discourse 
on the Times, Character and Writings of Hippocrates," de- 
livered as an introductory address before the trustees, faculty 
and medical class of the College of Physicians and Surgeons, 
at the opening of tlie session of 1852-53. The three pictures" 
which he gives of Hippocrates, as a young practitioner in the 
Isle of Tliasos, at the death-bed of Pericles, and as a teacher 
in the Isle of Cos, are masterpieces worthy of Walter Savage 
Liuidor. In no words of exaggeration the late George 
D. Prentice said, " There are but few word pictures in the 
Enghsh language that exceed the grandeur and loveliness of 
that one called into being by Dr. Bartlett in which he imag- 
ines Pericles upon his death-bed with H'^^pocrates in attend- 

It is remarkable how many physicians write poetry, or 
what passes as such. I have been told of a period ui the 
history of the Royal College of Physicians of London when 
every elect (censor), as they were called, had written verses. 
Some begin young, as did Bartlett ; others become attuned 
in the deep autumnal tone of advancuig years, when, as Plato 
tells us in the Phaedo, even Socrates felt a divine impulsion 
to make verses before quitting the prison house. Those 
of us who have read the epic of the late distinguished 
Professor George B.Wood, of the University of Pennsylvania, 
entitled, " First and Last," published when he was sixty-four, 
will devoutly hope that professors of medicine, when afflicted 
with this form of madness, Avill follow his example and pub- 
lisli their poems anonymously and in another country. Jacob 
Bigelow, too, when nearly seventy, " darkened sanctities with 
song " with his American " Rejected Addresses " (Eolopoe- 

Dr. Bartlett had poetical aspirations early in life. In a 
letter to his sister of Dec. 3, 182G, lie speaks of having seen 
in New York, in the Garland, " two fugitive pieces which 
some months before I had made use of to fill up the corner of 
a newspaper, but what sense they might have contained had 

" The reader will find these iiictures In an appendix to this lecture. 


Ings in 

been turned into nonsense, and I blushed for my ^andeu g 
orphans, notwithstanding they had l>een so we dressed and 
though they had £oun<l their way into pretty respectable 
company. I should have blushed for myself iiad they been 
e3S to the public as my offspring." In another let er 
of the same period we see how completely he had passed be- 

"^t^cS^lf "S Bartlett issued a little volume ^^ 
entitled ''sfn'pk Settings in Verse, for Six Portraits and ve.e. 
Pictu^s from^ Mr. Dickens's Gallery," the mditmg o 
which had been, as he says, a pleasant occupation ^^^^^ 
helped to while away and fill up many an lunu« ^ J f ^^^^^^ 
otherwise have been weary or vacant in l^-JPJ'f ;^, ' ^^.^ 
have already spoken of one, "An Allegory, m which aie 
a tobCi'p^"cal details. I cannot do better than to .luote 
from an appreciative notice which his friend Oliver Wendell 
HoL^ wrote of the httle volume. " When to the triends he 
had loved, there came a farewell gift, not a ast effort of the 
learning and wisdom they had been taught to expec from 

iTm but a Uttle book with a few songs in it, songs with his 
X'le warm heart in them, they knew that lus houi-^ w s 
come and their tears fell fast as they read the Iom g 

houghS that he had clothed in words of "^t-l b-^^^^ ^ 
melody The cluster of evening primroses had opened and 

%?^ZSt^"ture,--a manhood fused with 

female ^racT- to judge from the statements o contempora- 

e'tlSds, tJ kifow Bartlett was tj^ 1- hnn. Ah3nzo 

Clark writes to him always as " Dear Brothei, and saj s in 

one Place ' We all wish that you were among us -not to 

work unkss you choose, but that we might see that face of 

rurs^md e^l the influence of tlie mind that shines through 

l'^ TWonMres John Orne Green and Alonzo Clark, are 

• }!^l^X\vess^iV - Dear Brother." Among the lettei-s 
mvariably addiessed s i^«-^ ^^^ ^^.j^^^^^ 

is one of sympathy to Di- G^^ "' ^ nnlocked his 

I"' f";^:t^';::^h n"^hu--PFa^ to the afflicted 
S ll ^eZf aJ^st t:;o saered to quote, but after listenmg 
you will forgive me : 

uMy Dear Brother: What shall I say to the melun- ,^^^3,\ 
choly allusion, in the close of your letter, to the death ot uu. 


dear Minerva ? Wliiit poor words of mine can he of any 
service to one on whom the hand of the (ireat Chastener has 
heen so heavily laid? How shall 1, whose life has heen com- 
paratively so cloudless and serene, come, with the message of 
solace and encouragement, into the presence of one wluwe 
meridian sun has heen shrouded in such utter and dreadful 
eclipse? Hut why should Inot? Am I not a hrother and 
a man? Has not hereavement heen a guest in the dwelling 
of my childhood ; has not death heen a familiar visitor amid 
the scenes of my early friendships and hap[)incss and hoi)es? 
And where, too", is the future — for us all — for me, as well 
as for yourself? We hut follow each other through the 
furnace of a miction, as we follow each other to the grave. 
Who of us has so hedged in his earthly treasures that the 
spoiler cannot easily l)reak through the frail enclosure, and 
rifle him, in a moment, of the choicest and best? The lines 
of the Christian poet, familiar to me, chiefly, from tin- lips of 
a now sainted mother, occur to my memory here : 

' The siiider's most attenuated tliread 
Is cord, is table, U> man's tender tie 
On earthly bliss; — it breaks at every breeze.' 

We are brothers, then, in all the liabiUties and contingencies 
and uncertainties of the future. Let us be brothers and fel- 
low-helpers, also, in its hopes and its duties. There can be 
no entire and hopeless wretchedness for the soid of man, ex- 
cept that which arises from its self-intlicted degradation. 
The sweet sister, the affectionate daughter, the beautiful 
bride, and the young mother, was taken away in the clear, 
imclouded morning of hw life — taken away, but where? 
And by whom ? The flower was transplanted from an earthly 
garden — a fair and sunny one, it is true, but horn an 
earthly garden — to be set forever where no worm can feed 
on its root, where no decay can ever dry up its bloom — in 
the Paradise of God. l(v wh(mi? Taken away — by her 
Father, from a far-off country, where she was only a sojourner 
or a pilgrim — to her beautiful and eternal home. Take 
these thoughts into your heart, and they shall lighten up, or 
drive away, the darkness of the past, and, what is bettei', they 
shall again cheer your future with the once familiar forms 
and faces of JIappiness and Hope. How can we know what, 
even of present good, our indulgent Father may have hi store 


for us? He may have allotted to yon many long years, to be 
tilled up tirst with duty, and, if tilled with duty, to Ito 
crowned, also, witli tiie eheerfnl li,t,dit ut' social and doniestio 
j(»y. You may say, i)erhai)s, tlial this is all very well for me 
to say, but that I know nothing about it. Hut I do know 
something of the mutability of all earthly things. This un- 
certainty has long been to me a daily theme of meditation; 
so I am n(»t wiiolly a stranger. Uut 1 have found an anti- 
dote to the gloom and sadness which would otiierwise occa- 
sion in remembering that all things are in the hands of a 
Wise Disposer, and the surest way to please Ilim, as well as 
to seciire our own present as well as luture peace, is to sul)- 
mit to His dispensations and t(» follow on in the course of 
active and cheerful duty to Ilim, to our fellows and to our- 

When at Louisville some obscure nervous trouble, the na- U'e'ith/"'' 
ture of which I have not been able to ascertaui, attacked Dr. 
Bartlett. Against it in New York he fougiit bravely but in 
vain, and after the session of ls5:5-54 retired to Smithtield, 
his native [dace. The prolonged illness terminated in paraly- 
sis, but, fortunately, did not impair his mental facuUies in 
the slightest degree, ih- died on ihe T.Hh of Jnly, iSoo. 

¥von\ the many euhtgies which appeared after Hartlett's 
death, 1 select a portion of one written by his dearest friend, 
Ahaizo Clark, as the preface to the fourth edition of the ^^^^^^^ 
"Fevers."' "Sixteen months ago, he closed his brilliant pro- ciark's 
fessional career, after years of growing bodily weakness and ^"'"*''^'' 
pain; liis mind not dimmed by liis physical inlirmities, but 
briL;ht and compreliensive, glowing witli the memories of the 
past, and the visions of llie future, lie died too soon for the 
profession he adorned. Tlie clock liad hardly marked twelve 
at noon, on the dial plate of life, when its penduhnn strokes 
grew faint and gradually fainter to tlie ear; and now, at 
h'ngth, when all is still,' the hand that notes the hours pohits 
sad'Tv ui)war(l, to indicate how nnicli of daytime still remained 
to reai» tlie harvest (»f affection and honor, in those tields 
from which he had already garnered up so many golden 
sheaves, lie died, alas 1 too soon. The wliole profession are 
his mourners: for conspicuous as he had become by his med- 
ical writings and bis extended professional lalxn's, his ae- 



•ed wor 



his innate gentleness and niodesiy 


(liBanm-d envy. He left no enemies. His mind and purpose 
were pure, almost beyond example. His higli nu-ntal endow- 
ments were controlled and dirc-eted hy a considerate judgnient 
and an earnest, benevolent iieart; and as tbe laws ot re rac- 
tion wrought (mt into nnitbematical formula', enable the lapi- 
dary to construct the facets which open the fountanm ot the 
many-colored, so, feu- him, cultivation and elegiuit 
taste had brought out the varied and wiiming native lights ot 
Ills rich, intellectual, moral and social nature." 

In translating the " Lives of Eminent French Physicians," 
Rartlett said he had a two-fold object: "First, the deline- 
ation of distinguished professional character and attainment, 
and, secondly, by the influence of such high examples to 
awaken in the younger members of the medical body a more 
devoted and worthy emulation of the great masters of our 
art." In this spirit I appear before you to-tlay, glad to tell 
over the story of your countryman — the story of " a life in 
ci\dc action warm/' one that all " the muses deck't with gilts 
of gi-ace," a distinguished teacher, an author of widespread 
influence and distinction, a serene philosopher, but above all 
a man in whom you may recognize, even from the brief and 
imperfect sketch which I have given, 

"A likeness to the wise below, 
A kinsliip with the great of old." 



In one of the yearn of the Sf^th OlympaM, in the islainl of 
TluiHoH, frontins^ tlie Thrasian city of Ahilera, there was sadness 
in the house of Sileniis, for its yoiinu; master hail lieen seized with 
sudden and ahirniinu- iUness — the fiery cmisitfi of the climate. 
The year had been marked l»y some meteorological ami epidemic 
peculiarities. A little before the risinif of Arcturus — that is, 
just previous to the autummil equinox, and while this constella- 
tion was still upon the horizon, there had been heavy and fre- 
quent rains, with wimls from the north. Towards the eipiinox, 
and ujt to the settinjj; of the I'leiades, tlu3re were liiiht rains with 
southerly winds. Durinsj the winter, the winds Avere cold, strong, 
and dry from the north, with snow. Towards the vernal e(iuinox, 
there were violent storms. The spring was cold and rather wet, 
with win<ls from the north. Towards the summer solstice, there 
were light rains and the temperature was cool till near the ap- 
proach of the dog-days. After the dog-days and until the rising 
of Arcturus, the sunuiier was marked by great heat ; not at inter- 
vals, but constantly. There was iw water. Summer-etesien- 
winds were prevalent. From the rising of Arcturus to the time 
of the ecpiinox, there were rains with the wind from the south. 

iJuring the winter, the general health of the Thasians was 
good, e.vcepting an epidemic prevalence of paralysis. At the 
opening of spring, the <:(nitii(tt showed itself, and continued t pre- 
vail up to the autumnal equinox. During the early pan of the 
season, the disease was mild; but after the autumn rains, it be- 
came more severe, and carried off a great many of its subjects. 
. . . Dysenteries prevailed also during the summer; ami some 
patients wi'th fever even, who ha<l had hemorrhages, were attacked 
with dysentery : this happened to the slave of Kraton, and to 
Myllus. . . . There Avas much sickness amongst the women. 
. . , i\Ianv had dithcult labors, and were sick subsecjuently ; 
this was the case with the (huighter of Telebolus, who died on 
the tenth day after her contiuement. . . . When the caiisus 

> Kvdin a Discomse on the Tiiuo.-. Character, and Writings of llii>i>ocratos, by 
Elisha Hartlett. 


proved fatal, deatli connnonly took ylace on the sixth day, as in 
the cases of Epaininondas. Silenus, and IMnliscus, son ot Anta- 
Conas. . . . The parotid .ulands siiiipnrated in the case ot 
Cratistonax, who lived near the tenq.le of Hercules; and also in 
that of the servant of Scynnnus, <he fuller, _ 

But oniittin-' anv further details of the i)revailing- diseases ot 
the vear, let us"^ return to the l)edside of the young patient in 
Ahdera. It is the third day of his disease ; he has had a restless 
and distressed niyht, with" some wanderin^i; of the mind ; the 
symptoms are all worse in the morning, and his family and neigh- 
bors are anxious an<l alarmed. The occuj.ations and order ot 
that old Thasian household are interrui)ted and broken uj). A 
fresh offerinu has been placetl on the altar of the household Jove, 
standing in the centre of the inner court. The sound of the tlute 
and the cithera has ceased ; there is no animated talk of the last 
winners at the Isthmian or the Olympian games ; the clatter of 
the loom and the domestic hum of * the spinning wheel are no 
lono-er heard; the naked feet of the slaves and the women fall 
carefully and silently u])onthe uncari)eted tloors,and an unwonted 
stillness reigns throughout the numerous apartments of the 
dwellinu;. There is no'savory steam of roasting wild-boar from the 
kitchen^and the fragrant thracian wine stands untasted on the 
table, with a few plain barley-cakes and a little salt tish. 

Silenus lies in his sleeping cliaml)er, in the quiet interior ])art 
of the house, adjoining the ai)artments of the women, farthest 
from the vestibule, and near to the garden. By the bed of the 
sick man, there is a small trij.od stand, with a circidar top, and 
u])on it there is a statuette of Hercules, a bowl of warm barley- 
water, and a cup of oxymel. 

Leanint;; her liead oii the foot of the bed ami sobbing, sits, on a 
low stoo^a voung (4reek woman. l)eautiful in her feat^ures, and 
graceful in the Howing outlines of her person, as the Thessalian 
maidens of Homer. "There is a ]iictures((ue comlnnation of bar- 
barian rudeness and (-irecian elegance in a])pearance, iiot an 
unfitting type and exjiression of the age and state of society, m 
the mi(lst of which she lived. Her feet and ankles are bare ; she 
wears only a single garment — the long Ionic chiton of linen — 
with large sleeves reaching only a little l)elow the shoulders, 
leavinu; uncovered, in their snowy whiteness, arms that niight 
have rivalled those of the jealous "queen of Olympus. A girdle 
fastens the robe loosely round a waist, like that of the Medician 
Venus, innocent of the 'deformities of buckram and wlialebone. 
The light auburn hair is simply parted and carried l»ack from tiie 
forehead, gathered in a knot on the crown of the head, fastened 
with a gol-en grasshopper, and held by a coif of golden net- 


At the head of the bed, watohino- steadfastly and earnestly the 
ai)i)earaiu-e of the ))atient, is seated his jihysician, the already 
celebrated son of Ileraclides and Phenaretes, llijipocrates of Cos. 
He has just entered the apartment, to make his morning visit. 
Ilis sandals have been taken oft", and his feet washed I)y a slave 
in the vestibule. He wears over his linen tunic a large flowing 
mantle of light fine woolen, suited to the season, not unlike the 
later toga of the Romans, fastened at the neck with a cameo of 
^Esculapius, and falling in graceful folds nearly to his feet. His 
hair is long, and both this and his beard are kei)t and arranged 
with scruimlous neatness and care, lie is thirty years old, in the 
very prime and l)eauty of early manhood. His features, through 
these misty shadows of many centuries, we cannot clearly dis- 
tinguish, luit we see that his face is dignified, thoughtful and 
serene ; and his whole aspect, manner and ex})ression are those of 
high, anticpie breeding, of refine<l culture, and of rather studied 
and elaborate elegance. 

His examination of his [tatient was long, anxious and careful. He 
saw at once that the gravity and danger of the disease had increased 
since his hust visit." He inquired very minutely into the manner 
in which the night had l)een passed ; arid was told by the watchers 
that the patient had had no sleej), that he had talked constantly, 
had sung and laughed, and had been agitated and restless. He 
found the hypochondria tumefied, but .vithout much hardness. 
The stools had been blackish and watery, and the urine turbid 
and dark colored. He noticed the temjjerature and feel of the 
skin, and he studied for a long time and with great solicitude the 
general manner and appearance, the decubitus, the breathing,^ the 
motioi\s, and especially the physiognomy of the patient. The 
only circumstance in the examination that would have particularly 
attracted the attention of a modern witness of the scena, would 
have been his omission to feel the i)ulse. With this exception, no 
examination of the rational symptoms of disease could have been 
more thorough and methodical. 

Having satisfied lumself as to the state of his patient, he retired 
to an adjoinmii- room, followed by some of the attendants, to give 
directions in regard to the few simple remedies that he intended 
to use. The j.alient had already been bled, and had had a pur- 
oative of black hellebore. Hippocrates directed, that instead of 
tiie strained decoction of barley, which had been the patient's 
drink, he should iu)sv have h(»ney and water — the ^ivorite 
hydromel — that the bed should be made softer— the windows of 
tiie room still farther darkened, ami that a warm fiax-seed 
poultice, softened with olive oil, should be applied to the abdomen. 
With a sad but decided expression of his fears as to tht issue 
oi the case, and a few kindly and pious words to the weeping 


wife, about the dignity, the solace, and the duty, in all our trials, 
of submission to the\vill of the g-ods, he gathered his mantle 
gracefully about him, had his sandals refitted by tlie slave who 
waited in the vestibule, and proceeded on his daily round of 
visits among the houses of the city. 

And now, leaving the sterile island of Thasos, let us follow the 
young physician to another sick chamber — to a scene of domestic 
life, still further illustrative of that remote and wonderful period, 
with which we are concerned. 

The time is a year or two later — it is the house of Pericles 
that we enter, and we stand by the death-bed of the great and 
venerable Archon. Every thing in the spacious apartment indi- 
cates the pervading presence — not of obtrusive grandeur, or of 
showy and ostentatious wealth, — but of stately elegance, and of 
high,\ arious, many-sided luxury, culture, and refinement. Pliil- 
osophy, letters, and art breathe"^ in the quiet atmosphere of the 
room ; and the taste of Aspasia sheds an Asiatic grace over its 
furnishing and its decorations. In one corner stands a statue of 
Minerva, from the chisel of Phidias ; and the walls are covered 
with pictures, fresh from the pencils of Pan.-enus and PolygnotUB, 
illustrating the legendary and historic glories of Greece. There 
might have been seen Theseus, bearing off from the field of vic- 
tory, on the banks of the Thermddon, the masculine and mag- 
nificent queen of the Amazons — half willing, perhaps, to be the 
captive of such a victor; Jason, in his good ship Argo, with his 
fifty selectest heroes, convoyed by the queen of love, the awful 
Here, and Apollo, winds his various and adventurous voyage, 
crowded with poetic imagery and romantic incident, and brings 
back the golden tieece from Colchis ; — Helen, at her loom, is 
weaving into her " golden web " the story of the Trojan wars ; — 
the chaste l^enelope, by the light of her midnight lamp, undoes 
the delusive labors of the day;" — Ulysses, returned from his long 
Avandei-ings, surveys once more, with bo\ash pride and delight, the 
dear old bow, which no arm but his could bend. 

The central figure on that old historic canvas that I have en- 
deavored to unroll before you, is that t)f the d^nng statesman. 
Raised and resting, in solemn and a\igust serenity, upon its last 
pillow, lies that head of ()lym))iHn grandeur, which — I may say 
it without ]iresumi>tion — after the lapse of nearly twenty-three 
centuries, uoav finds, for the first time, its fitting representative 
and likeness — as tl\e character and career of the great Athenian 
find their counterparts also — in that illustrious orator and states- 
man, who now walks in solitary majestv amongst us — the pride, 
the strength, the glory, of the l{ei)uljlic-— the Pericles of our 


Athens — whose Acropolis is the Constitution of his conntry — 
whose Propyhva are the freedom and the federation of the States. 

A(hle(l to the calamities of that lontj; and disastrous internecine 
Btru<f(>;le hetween tlie two rival cities of Greece, which had just 
begun, Athens was now afflicted with that terrible visitation of 
the ]>lagne, the history of which has been left to us by Thu- 
cydides; and Pericles was sinking under a protracted and Avear- 
ing fever — the result of an attack of the disease. 

His long and glorious life is about to close. lie Lad been, for 
more than an entire generation — if never the tirst Archon, and 
not always the most popular — by common consent the most 
eminent citizen, statesman, and orator of the republic — the great 
defender of her constitution — tlie champion of her freedom and 
her rights — the upholder and the magnifier of her renown. 
Political rivals, di8a])pointed partisans, and a few malignant 
personal enemies, and professional libellers and satirists, had been 
hostile to his career, and had endeavored to blacken his fair 
fame ; but his strong and unshaken democratic faith — his far- 
seeing sagacity — his firmness and moderation — his enlarged, 
liberal, humanizing, conservative, and pacific policy — his moral 
courage and independence, and his high public ]>robity, had 
triumphed over them all; and although by braving the jirejudices 
of his friends and supporters, in his devotion to the general weal, 
he had gathered over his declining sun some clouds of jniblic dis- 
favor — the sense of justice, and the feeling of gratitude in the 
minds of his countrATuen were (]uick to return — the clouds were 
already scattered, or they served only to deei)en and reflect the 
setting splendor which, for a moment, they had intercepted and 

Many of his near personal friends and relatives had already 
fallen victims to the pestilence. Both his sons had jierished, and 
the young I'ericles — the child of Aspasia — had been sent away, 
with his niother, for safety, into Thessal) . I'hidias, and his old 
teacher, Anaxagoras, his 

" Gil ,le, pliilosoplier, ami friend," 

had died a little while before the breaking out of tlie epidemic. 
1'hose who were left had now gafhered around the bed of the 
dying Archon, to receive the rich legacy of his parting words, and 
to ]iay to him the last solemn and kindly oflices of life. 

Not often in the world's history has there met together a more 
august and illustrious com]iany. These are a few of those whom 
we are aide tit recognize amongst them. IJesting his head on the 
shoulder of Socrates, and sobbing aloud in unrestrained and ]ias- 
sionate sorrow, leans the wild and reckless Alcibiades — just in 


the tirst bloom of that res]>len(lent i)ev8onal beauty Avhicli niade 
him seem to the eves, even of the Greeks, more hke the radiant 
ainiarition of a xomv^ Apollo, than any form ot mere earthly 
mould — snbaueci, for^he first time in his life, and probably for 
tiie last— by the spectacle before liim, of his dying relative and 
<.-uardian— to reverence, tenderness, and truth. Sophocles, his 
old comi)anion in arms, is there; an.l near him, in his coarse 
mantle, and with unsandaled feet, may have stood a grandson ot 
Aristides, still poor Avith the honorable poverty of Ins great an- 
cestor. , 1 • 1 

C'onspicuous amidst this group of generals, admirals, statesmen, 
orators, artists, ])oets, and philosophers,— in rank and fortune, in 
social position, in reputation, in learning, culture, and retinement, 
theh- equal and associate, sits the young physician of Cos. AI- 
readv had his risinu' fame reached Athens, and when the city, 
overcrowded with "the inhabitants of Attica, driven from then- 
homes by the armies of Sparta, Avas smitten Avith the pestilence, 
he Avas summoned from his island home in the ^Egean, to stay, if 
he could, the march of the destroying angel, and to succor AVith 
his skill those Avho had fallen under the shadoAv of its Avings. 

On a gentle declivity, looking tOAvard the south-Avest, in the 
small island of Cos, Iving in the ^Egean sea, a few stadia from the 
coast of Asia Elinor," stands the temple of ^Esculapius. Its Ionic 
columns, and its ornamented friezes of Pentelican marble, glitter 
and Hash in the sun-light, as Ave Avatch them through the sAvay- 
ing branches of the ancient oaks, chestnuts, and elms, that make 
the sacred grove of the temi)le. In the centre of the principal 
room, or cella, of the temple, and fronting the entrance, stand 
statues of ^Esculai-ius, and his daughters, Ilygiea and Panacea. 
On each side of the entrance are marble fonts of lustral Avater, 
for the ]>reliminarv purification of the sick visitors to the temj.le. 

Near a column of the temple, and holding a roll of jtapyrus in 
bis left hand, stands Hippocrates, (fathered about him, in ]«ic- 
tures^pie little trroups, there is a comi)any of (4reek youths. 
Their tasteful and eleirant costumes, their earnest and intelligent 
faces, and their general air and bearing, all show i)lainly enough 
the suiierior refinement and culture of the class to Avhich they be- 
long;. Tl-.ey are medical stu.lents, young Asclei>iades, Avho have 
assembled here from the several states of Greece, to acquire the 
clinical skill and ex]ierience of the great surgeon and physirian 
of Cos, and to listen to the eloquent less<.ns of the illustrious 

Thirty years have gone by since Ave met him at the bedside ot 
the dvinu'l'erii'les. The lapse of this generation has thinned his 
flowing iialr. and sprinkled his beard with silver. 


It wouM 1)6 gratifying if we oouM know soniethino; of his ].ev- 
>4onal history aiiring'thi's long an«l ai-tive i)eri()(l of his life. We 
kiH)\v hut 'little, however, and this little is dim and shadowy. 
That he had led a life of activity and usefulness, and of growing 
rei.utation, and that he had visited various portions of Greece, is 
certain. What he himself had witnessed, and nuist have felt, we 
know well enouyh. He had seen, for this whole i.eriod, his 
countrv torn and' distracted by civil war — state arrayed against 
state, city against citv ; he liad mourned over the disastrous ex- 
pedition of^Vthens against Syracuse: and shooting athwart a! 
the nmrky darkness of this troubled and stc.rmy period — instead 
of the beiiignant sun of Pericles — the l)aleful rays of the star of 
Alcibiades,'setting at last, but too late for his country, in ignonuny 

and lilood. . . 

I have not departed from the strictest limits ot historical pro- 
babilitv, in assigning to Hipi.ocrates the high powers of didactic 
and persuasive oratorv. One of the most potent agencies m the 
develoi)ment of Greek intellect, and the advancement ot (-Jreek 
civilization, consisted in the general prevalence of pul)lic teaching 
and recitation. For manv successive centuries, it was from the 
livinu- lii)s of bards and Vhapsodists, kindled with coals from the 
trlowTno- altars of i)atriotism and religion,— and not through the 
iuediuin of anv cold and silent written records, that the immortal 
strains of the Iliad and the Odyssey rang thnuigh the land, an<l 
were made literally familiar as liousehold words. Even up to an 
advanced period of (Grecian culture, the art of writing was but 
little practiced ; and it was bv s].eech, and not by reaihng, that 
statesmen, poets, orators, philosophers, and historians acted upon 
their dist'iples an.l the public. 1Mien, the evidence derived from 
his writinus is full and conclusive, that Hippocrates was not 
merelv a skillful physician, but that he was learne<l m all the 
philosophy and literature of his age. Plato speaks of the Ascle- 
piades his cotemporaries,as men of elegant and cultivate<l minds, 
who in the they give to their patients, go even to 
the hei'dits of phih)soi.hv. It is no violation, then, ot historic 
prol)abiTitv, to presume that the great philosojihic and i)ractical 
physician — who had been trained in this unrivaled school ot 
human si.eech — who had listene.l to tl.e elo-iuence of I'ericles m 
the i.ublic assemblies, or been charmed liy the '-collo.iuial niagic 
of Socrates,^' in the market-i'lace, should have l)een himscit, also, 
a master of this high power of instructive and ])ersuasive speech. 
It is by no forced or illeiiitimate exercise of the fancy, that we 
look iKick to the scene I have endeavored to sketch, And Mith 
little <lanoer of departing far from the truth, we may imagine 
what would be likelv to constitute the theme .)f his discourse, 
especiallv- if the occasion was one of unusual interest or solemnity, 


wiu'h as the openinsj; or closinjjf of one of his oourses of instruction 
— the IiUro(hu-tory T.ectiire — or the Valedictory Address to tlie 
grachiatiim class of the school of Cos, at tlie teriii of the tirst year 
of the 9rnh Olyinj.aid. 

Tlie character of lliiijiocrates. his jtosition. his close observation 
of nature, his kno\vledj;-e, his j)hilosni)liy, the times in which he 
lived, the circumstances Mhich surrounded him, all cons])ired to 
make him a jiolemic and a reformer. Ue Avould n- )>"l)ly take 
such an occasion as that of which I am s|ieakinir, tc rn and 

to vindicate the ureat prinei) lies of his system; ji.nd .-iild be 

likely to heu-in Avith an exposition of the errors of n.„-(iical doc- 
trine and practice, most imjiortant and most irenerally prevalent. 
I do not supjtose that our illustrious historical father was wholly 
exempt from the intirniities of our common nature; and it is very 
possible that in his animadversions ujion the system of his Cnidian 
neighbors, there were mingled some ingredients more spicy than 
Attic salt; and he may have indulged, ]>ei'haps, in some allow- 
al)le self-congratulation, that the class of Cos was so much larijer 
than that at Cnidus. 

I suppose, however, that as President of the college, he would, 
in a graceful and digniiied exordium, give his greeting and wel- 
come to the members of the class; he would express his gratifica- 
tion at seeing so numerous an assemblage from so numv of the 
states of (Greece — from the North and the South, the East and 
the West — from Attica, and Beotia, and the Peloponnesus — 
from distant Sicily, and even from Egypt. 

After this, or some similar a]ij>ropriate introduction, he would 
probably continue l)y warning his hearei\s against the subtle ami 
dangerous errors of superstition — of the old theurgic faith. He 
would speak of the great revolution that had so recently taken 
place in the Greek mind, even then only jiartially accomi)lished ; 
be Avould describe in colors such as only he could use, who had 
felt this change in his own sj.irit, and who had witnessed it all 
about him — the gra(bial dawn and the h'nal rising of the central, 
solar idea of a simple spiritual theism, of fixed laws, of invariable 
relations and sequences of events, in the economy of nature. As 
he sketched the outlines of this great ami pregnant history, he 
could hardly fail to linger for a moment, with something of the 
passionate enthusiasm of his early years, and Avith something also 
of their strong and simjde faith, upon that gorgeous theuriric and 
mythological creation of theCireek mind, which marked its legend- 
ary and religious period. lie would speak of this mythology, and 
its various and beautiful legemls, in no cynical or bigoted" tone, 
but with i)hiloso]ihicil toleration, and with something even of 
loving sympathy and admiration. He Avould say it was the genial 
and natural product of the quick, susceptible, 'many-si<led Creek 






mind, in the ])eriod of its childhood and adolescence. Kindling 
with his old enthusiasm, he Avoiild have likened that early age, 
peopled with its gods and demi-goils, its heautit'iil women and lieroic 
men, to its own young A])ollo — the hloom of immortal yoxxth 
on his beaming forehead, his flowing locks sweet with the am- 
brosia of the dewy morning of life, and all his form radiant with 
a divine beauty. lie would have said that the present high civili- 
zation of his country was in a great degree the growth of seed 
planted in that genial soil, and nurtured by that genial sun ; that 
Greek character, and art, and }»hilo80phy, are all still steeped in 
the glorious light of the old Homeric age. 

In the third jdace, he would have warned his hearers against 
the seductive but dangerous influences of the philoso]»her8. These 
men, he would have said, are, for the most part, idle dreamers, 
and they are notliing else. I know them well. They affect 
superior wisdom, and they look down disdainfully upon the phy- 
sician, and the ])atient observer of nature. They seem to think 
that the economy of the universe, including the human system, in 
health and disease, can be ascertained and understood by a sort of 
intellectual divination, which they call wisdom and ])hilosophy, 
but which is in reality only empty hypothesis and idle specula- 
tion. He would then have entered into an examination of these 
systems; he would have exhibited their radical errors and defects 
— he would have comjiared them whli the humbler ])hilosophy of 
observation and experience, and he would have shown that they 
ha<l accomplished nothing, and that in the very nature of things 
they could accomplish nothing, for the advancement of real 

As he gazed u])on that most impressive spectacle before him, — 
»o many of his young countrymen, gathered at the peaceful sum- 
mons of science and humanity from all portions of the Grecian 
territi>ry, tille<l with hojie, with ardor, with ]iromise, litVs full and 
radiant future stretching far and ,,iir before them, — a cloud of 
sadness ,^o dd hardly fail to throw its shadow over his features, as 
he remembered the long thirty years of civil discord, of deadly 
internci'ine strife, through which his country had just passed ; and 
his ck)sing words could hardly fail to rise into a jiatriotic and 
Pan-Hellenic hymn, the burden of which should be, that the 
glory, and hajipiness, and safety of Greece, were to be found in 
the union of her states: that they whom he addressed — his young 
friends ami disciples — were the common and eijual heirs of the 
glory of Maiathon and Thermt)pyl;c : that they all s))oke the lan- 
uuaire of Homer; that while thev need not foriret, but mitrht be 
proufl even, that they were Spartans, or Atiienians, or I'hebans, 
or Thessalians, they ought to rememlier with a higher jiride, that 
they Avere also, and more than all, <irceks; that they had a com- 
mon country, and that a common destiny awaited them.